Test Weight (SAGPyA 1262/04 Resolution)

It is an important quality factor around the world and it is influenced by grain shape, uniformity, density and size. The content of foreign material and broken kernels has also an influence on it. To a high Test weight in a certain wheat corresponds high flour yield. It is defined as the weight of 100 litres wheat volume, as is, expressed in kg/hl. It is determined by the use of a Schopper balance.

Moisture (IRAM* 15850)

This test is carried out by previous milling and then drying at 130º C +/- 3º C under normal pressure in an oven with forced air circulation, during an hour.

Foreign material (SAGPyA 1262/04 Resolution)

All kernels or pieces of kernels, other than wheat, and any other inert material.

Total damaged kernels (SAGPyA 1262/04 Resolution)

Kernels or pieces of wheat kernels that are substantially altered in their structure, such us: heat damaged, green, frozen, sprouted, calcinated and germ or insect chewed kernels.

Smutty kernels (SAGPyA 1262/04 Resolution)

Wheat kernels that have been changed into a black mass due to fungus (Tilletia spp.) attack. Kernel external appearance is often round and gray.p>

Shrunken and broken kernels (SAGPyA 1262/04 Resolution)

Kernels or pieces of kernels that have readily passed through a 1.6 x 9.5 mm oblong-hole sieve. This determination shall be done after separating foreign material, damaged and smutty kernels.

Yellow berry kernels (SAGPyA 1262/04 Resolution)

Kernels with starchy endosperm in more than a half of their structure, showing a yellowish appearance.

Protein Content - 13.5% moisture basis (SAGPyA 1262/04 Resolution - Chemist Method from ICC Nº 105 – IRAM* 15852)

Proteins are complex organic compounds containing nitrogen. Flour proteins are responsible for obtaining gluten, once this one and water were put in contact. Proteins were determined in flour by the Kjeldahl method, while they were quantified in grain by rapid methods based on reflectance and transmittance (NIR - NIRT).

Weight of 1,000 kernels (IRAM* 15853)

Its value is related to the quantity of flour that is possible to obtain from a wheat lot. This analysis is carried out by the counting and weighing of whole kernels.

Ash (IRAM* 15851)

Ash determination conforms one of the best methods to measure the milling process efficiency. The ash content of certain flour can give an idea about the percentage of bran or minerals that it has.

The mineral matter is found in the residue that remains when the flour is ignited. The organic matters, such as starch, proteins, sugars (carbon hydrates), etc., are ignited, but the mineral matter remains as ash.

Ash content is determined by ignition at 900º C +/- 25º C using furnace until a constant weight is reached.



(IRAM* 15854 - Part 1 and 2)

Grain must be prepared to reach 15.5 % of moisture, which is the appropriated state to mill, in order to separate the bran from the endosperm. The milling is performed in an automatic experimental MLU–202 Bühler mill or other giving equivalent results.



Moisture (IRAM* 15850 Part 1)

This test is carried out by drying at 130º C +/- 3º C under normal pressure conditions in an oven with forced air circulation, during an hour.

Gluten (​IRAM* 15864 Part 2)

Gluten is a plastic - elastic substance with a yellowish colour which is isolated by washing the dough with a solution of sodium chloride and subsequently centrifugation to remove the starch and the soluble proteins (albumins and globulins), remaining the insoluble (gliadins and glutenins), which constitute wet gluten and dry gluten. The result is expressed in percentage.

The gluten main characteristic is the coherence and the agglutination that it gives to starch cells. During baking gluten is the one that retains gases, which are originated during the fermentation due to yeast effect.

​Zeleny Test (AACC Nº 56-61-IRAM* 15875)

This is the orientation test on the quality of a protein, estimating the gluten strength. It is associated with the quantity and the quality of proteins. The isopropyl alcohol in a slightly acid media (lactic acid solution) acts on the gluten (proteins) producing a swelling. The bigger this swelling is, the more precipitate volume will be obtained, and consequently the volume of bread will be improved.

Falling Number ( Hagberg – Perten Method - AACC Nº 56-81-IRAM* 15862)

This test measures flour alpha amylase activity, from which depends the fermentative capacity of dough during baking. These enzymes activity in wheat is variable, being affected by climate harvest conditions. Wet and hot conditions contribute to an increase in the enzymes activity, especially in germinated kernels, making the dough more liquid and obtaining sticky - crumbed breads. In order to know the alpha amylase activity, the Falling Number is used. A general idea of the enzyme activity is obtained through this method, according to the falling time in seconds.

Colorimeter (Minolta Chroma Meter CR-410)

It is used to determine the color of flour in an objective, easy and fast way since this is a very important parameter for the milling and bakery industry.

It is expressed through a tristimulus method, Hunter-Lab and measures:

L: brightness. L=100 white, L=0 black. The nearest to 100, the whiter the flour is.

a and b= express color values. +a: green, -a: red, +b: yellow, -b: blue. For white flour it should be between +/- 1 or 2 and b below 10. A value above 10 expresses a yellowish color.



Farinogram (Brabender Farinograph - ICC Nº 115)

It is used to prove dynamically dough properties in order to evaluate the quality of flour and the properties of dough process. The parameters recorded during the analysis show the behavior in the kneading, the water absorption capacity, the time that dough takes to get the best consistency and the stability or flour tolerance to mixing.

Mixogram (Swanson Mixograph - AACC Nº 54-40)

It determines the time of mixing or development ( DT), and stability through a graphic drawn by the equipment due to the resistance of dough. Low value of DT is evidence of a bad bakery quality.

Alveogram (Chopin Alveograph - ICCNº 121 – IRAM* 15857). ​

 - Chopin Manufacturer's Method. Boulogne, France.

The alveograph test simulates graphically the dough behavior during the fermentation process, imitating the dough alveolus formation due to CO2 produced by yeast action in large scale. By air inflation, this test measures the resistance to deformation and extensibility of test pieces from the dough with a certain thickness, thus obtaining curves called alveograms, where the area under it suggests the bakery strength (W). The maximum over pressure, which is related to the resistance of dough to deformation (P) is the tenacity, and the abscissa at the rupture point expresses the curve leng​​th (L), extensibility or index of swelling (G). P/L or P/G curve configuration ratios designs the dough equilibrium.

Consistograph (Chopin Alveograph NG Consistograph)

The consistograph makes it possible to carry out consistograph measurements as well as alveograph with adapted hydration. In a first test at constant hydration water absorption in flour is measured and then, the test is carried out at adapted hydration. In this way, the dough behavior is evaluated during mixing. The parameters measured are:
TPr Max: time to reach the peak of Maximum Pressure.
Tol: tolerance, time when pressure is superior to PrMax-20%.
D250: weakening of dough to 250 seconds.
D450: weakening of dough to 450 seconds.
WAC: hydration equivalent to 1700 mb based at 15% H2O.
HYDRA: hydration equivalent to 2200 mb based at 15% H2O. .

Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA viscoanalyiser- Newport Scientific-Standard ICC 162)

It quantifies the viscosity, determines the resistance of dough with basic of starch when subjected to a constant stirring action, incorporating time and temperature conditions. The sample is subjected to a classical cooking cycle (preheating-heating-stand) where the viscosity records a behavior that depends mainly on the starch origin and properties. It measures the following:
Maximum viscosity: maximum level of water absorption of the granules which produce a peak of viscosity.
Medium viscosity: granules break down due to stirring and polymers leach giving a decrease in viscosity.
End viscosity: in this period of temperature decrece, starch retro gradation takes place, this phenomenon gives way to the formation of gel and the amylose is the main responsible. Here, a new increase of viscosity occurs, reaching the final point of the test.
Dough Tº:  increase of viscosity which corresponds to the beginning of gelatinization of starch granules.
Break down: Break down: difference between maximum and medium viscosity. It makes it possible to know the stability of the granule to cooking.
Set Back: difference between maximum and end viscosity, associated to dough retro gradation.

 BAKING TEST (Official Method modified by EEA Marcos Juárez Laboratory) 
        IRAM* 15858-1


Is the most representative test of wheat industrial quality since, in a small scale, is a direct testing in which the flour aptitude to make a bread with good characteristics is evaluated. It allows to value the different stages in dough manufacturing, noticing the time it takes to develop and gain consistence, its behavior during fermentation, the bread volume and its inner and outer appearance.

The out coming values reflect the behaviour of the flour in an experimental method with short fermentation terms, while in industrial bread-making, with longer fermentation terms, such results can be different.

* References: IRAM: Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación (Argentine Standards and Certificatin

1 79 0,20 0,50 1,00 0,10 15,00 0,50 0,50 8 14 Libre Olores comercialmente objetables desde 0,5 a 2%.

Punta sombreada por tierradesde 0,5 a 2%.
Revolcado en tierra desde0,5 a 2%.

Punta negra por carbóndesde 1 a 6%.
2 76 0,80 1,00 2,00 0,20 25,00 1,2
3 73 1,5 1,5 3,00 0,30 40,00 2,00
Descuento aaplicar por c/kg. faltante o sobre el % deexcedentes 2,0 1,0 1,5 1,0 5,0 0,5 0,5 2,0 2% de merma y gastos de zarandeo Merma y gastos de secada Gastos de fumigación


GRADO: dentro del tipo contratado el comprador debe recibir mercadería “condición Cámara” dentro de cualquiera de los 3 grados establecidos en este estándar.
Bonificaciones y rebajas por grado
GRADO 1: bonificación del 1,5%.
GRADO 2: sin bonificación ni rebaja.
GRADO 3: rebaja del 1%.

Libre de insectos y/o arácnidos vivos
(1) Son todos aquellos granos o pedazos de granos de trigo pan que pasan por una zaranda de agujeros acanalados de 1,6 mm. de ancho por 9,5 mm. de largo, excluidos los granos o pedazoas de granos de trigo por dañados.
Contenido Proteico
Rangos Bonificaciones % Rebajas %
Mayor a 11% 2% 
11 %  
Menor a 11%  2%
Menor a 10%  3%
Menor a 9%  4%
Para lotes de Peso hectolítrico inferior a 75kg/hl, no se aplicarán las bonificaciones por contenido protéico.
12. Aptitud Panadera
Las partes podrán establecer que se considerará  fuera de grado al trigo cuyo gluten no tenga la capacidad de ligar durante el amasado o el levado, determinado mediante el sistema Glutomatic (AACC N°3812) o por cualquier otro método que dé resultados equivalentes. A tal efecto las partes deberán incluir como cláusula contractual lo siguiente:
“Contrato sujeto al punto 12 del Estándarde Trigo Pan”.